Python Gzip Decompress Stream

Python Forums on Bytes. For applications that require data compression, the functions in this module allow compression and decompression, using the zlib library. The input string is decoded according to the EncodingMode (hex, base64, etc. 先去找了下gzip的解释,发现python官方文档中,是这样说的: 12. Perhaps you can provide some guidelines for iterative decompression of gzip stream. python and other forums, Python 2. GZipStream in the. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 Race condition in backend/ctrl. Compression namespace contains the following types for compressing and decompressing files and streams. Stream stream = new Chilkat. It’s important to note that the GZip format doesn’t support adding multiple files to the same. There is no type 0 allowed in a zlib header. Session Objects¶. Wrapping Up. If this attribute is accessed before the end of the stream has been reached, its value will be b''. popen()ing a gzcat source achieves better performance by shifting the decompression to an asynchronous execution stream (separate process) while allowing the standard Python file object's optimised readline. My suggested fix step 7 would address this. 2 allows local users to change the permissions of arbitrary files, and consequently gain privileges, by blocking the removal of a certain directory that contains a control socket, related to. When wbits is negative, the standard gzip header is suppressed. Now, since I am a python gal, I wanted to figure out how to decompress this using Python so I could easily implement it into my scripting. The usual methods for writing and reading data are provided. Is there a way I can decompress a. For one-shot compression, use the decompress() function instead. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. The interesting thing is that it doesn't have to. SparkSession(sparkContext, jsparkSession=None)¶. A portable compression library that supports stream based compression (gzip, deflate) as well as ZIP archives. Writing and reading cookies is easy enough but, after testing my implementation a bit, I found out that my code was intermittently failing to save the cookie in my browser. GzipFile(fileobj=StringIO(s)). However, you can look in zlib's contrib/blast directory for a possible solution to your problem. Table of Contents Previous: Data Compression and Archiving Next: gzip – Read and write GNU zip files. It also persists cookies across all requests made from the Session instance, and will use urllib3 ’s connection pooling. Decompress GZIP. # Copyright (C) 2012 debian-l10n-german. (3 replies) I've one big (6. decode(f)))" ] ]} Any help or clue would be greatly appreciated. This allows the use of deflateSetHeader() with optional value to be used as a starting point for the checksum. com Use the gzip module in python for compression and decompression using python. In this case, both compression and decompression times are important. Decompressing HTTP GZIP responses using GZipStream (via extension methods) Here is a good example of using Extension Methods to simplify the compressing and decompressing of strings. Python Pickle. 15 zlib-- Compression compatible with gzip. Как декодировать сжатые данные gzip, возвращаемые в HTTP-ответе в python? Я создал архитектуру клиент / сервер в python, я беру HTTP-запрос от клиента, который обслуживается запросом другого HTTP-сервера через мой код. The Lempel–Ziv–Markov chain algorithm (LZMA) is an algorithm used to perform lossless data compression. This module provides a simple interface to compress and decompress files just like the GNU programs gzip and gunzip would. argv[1]) all(fh) As far as I understand most of the time it executes C code, so pythons no overhead should. Compress a file in memory, compute checksum and write it as `gzip` in python. tar files are often also compressed using the GZip compression algorithm which together give the “. Wrap a gzip. This can be used to save the state of the decompressor midway through the data stream in order to speed up random seeks into the stream at a future point. Become a Member Donate to the PSF. 2 allows local users to change the permissions of arbitrary files, and consequently gain privileges, by blocking the removal of a certain directory that contains a control socket, related to. Last week we shipped an RTM version. 9+), but is backwards-compatible with older versions (to 0. write(data) decompress data. 3 Status of This Memo This memo provides information for the Internet community. To run the sample, create a start folder in your program folder and populate it with files to zip. Class GZip An example class to demonstrate compression and decompression of GZip streams. I then tried sending the IOT messages to BLOB storage and them having PowerBI read them for there, however it was unable to decompress the GZIP. kafka-python is best used with 0. Decompress) 'Byte array. decompress(rawblock, size). You have to parse the header first, then you should be able to decode the stream using standard calls to inflate(). decompress(rawblock, size). So presently I want to use winhttp to get the compressed format (eg gzip) and decompress it. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Python 2 to 3 porting notes for bz2. Learn more about Teams. gz (GZip) file. Beware that this does not mean that Python variables are untyped. What? smart_open is a Python 2 & Python 3 library for efficient streaming of very large files from/to storages such as S3, HDFS, WebHDFS, HTTP, HTTPS, SFTP, or local filesystem. The gzip module in python works with files. BZ2Decompressor¶ Create a new decompressor object. Until recent years gzip and bzip2 are most commonly used data. localStorage being usually limited to 5MB, all you can compress is that much more data you can store. Decompressing HTTP GZIP responses using GZipStream (via extension methods) Here is a good example of using Extension Methods to simplify the compressing and decompressing of strings. copy() Returns a copy of the decompression object. How to read. org (proxied using socat to remove SSL encryption). A small trick using the zlib library (again in standard python distribution), however, allows one to achieve this. However, this one had a response header: GZIP encoding, and when I tried to print the source code of this web page, it h. decompress to allow it to handle multi-stream chunks of data. The data compression is provided by the zlib module. 4 and removed the change in urllib: http_client_gzip. The mission of the Python Software Foundation is to promote, protect, and advance the Python programming language, and to support and facilitate the growth of a diverse and international community of Python programmers. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. These stream classes makes it easier for us to do compression and decompression since we don't have to learn new interfaces. """ # based on Andrew Kuchling's minigzip. 5, I needed to change some code using a third party zip class to GZipStream. zlib's Deflate Algorithm zlib's deflate flush modes zlib License All released versions of zlib zlib on github CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) Bonus Information. In HTTP request and response, content-encoding is 'gzip' and content is gzipped. Data found after the end of the compressed stream. Any object on python can be pickled so that it can be saved on disk. It was created originally for use in Apache Hadoop with systems like Apache Drill, Apache Hive, Apache Impala (incubating), and Apache Spark adopting it as a shared standard for high performance data IO. NET GZipStream with Python zlib Just a quick post, sort of a note to myself. NET GZipStream. js文件:下载地址:https. The GzipFile class reads and writes gzip-format files, automatically compressing or decompressing the data so that it looks like an ordinary file object. Compression speed. StreamItem and can be used with any Thrift-defined objects. Consider this piece of code:. Make sure you are passing in a GZip stream. indexed_gzip was written to allow fast random access of compressed NIFTI image files (for which GZIP is the de-facto compression standard), but will work with any GZIP file. I also tried various python libraries to unzip the compressed file. Below is the sample code. pas and tiCompressZLib. If set to a file path, causes each Chilkat method or property call to automatically append it's LastErrorText to the specified log file. But you don't have a file on disk, you have a gzip-compressed buffer in memory, and you don't want to write out a temporary file just so you can uncompress it. As far as I know, gzip is a stream compression algorithm that can't be decompressed in small blocks. Python—HTTP处理Gzip压缩数据HTTP请求中包含Accept-encoding:gzip头信息可以告诉服务器,如果它有任何新数据要发送给我时,请以压缩的格式发送。 如果服务器支持压缩,它将返. The file is a single large text file. Today we’re happy to announce that we released two NuGet packages: A brand new Microsoft. I had my encoding it consumes a WHOLE lot more and new tv. , consumer iterators). How to compress and decompress using GZip in C# and VB. There are ports and bindings in various languages like Java, C#, Python etc. The payload in your case is the entire TCP payload, i. How to Convert a Stream to Byte Array in C# 4. Gzip HTML-to-XML/Text: HTTP HTTP Misc IMAP Compress and decompress using a stream. I then bought a power header been looking on gzip one), but again no luck. Rohit if I change fileText = fileLike. _read_eof() - self. to_pickle Pickle (serialize) DataFrame object to file. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. This module allows to decompress binary data compressed with DEFLATE algorithm (commonly used in zlib library and gzip archiver). In one-shot gzip decompression where your output stream and size should be fixed and sufficient for storing the whole decompressed output. In addition to values described in decompress(), wbits may take values 24. The gzip module in python works with files. 5’s new with statement (dead link) seems to be a bit confusing even for experienced Python programmers. 在 SegmentFault,学习技能、解决问题. Zlib — Compression compatible with gzip — Python 3. It is possible to use a wrapper method around the GZipStream and other streams. The gzip module provides the GzipFile class, as well as the open(), compress() and decompress() convenience functions. (3 replies) I've one big (6. To zip a file, use the GZipStream class with the FileStream class. And you might try changing your chunk size to a power of 2 (say CHUNKSIZE=1024) for possible performance reasons. You can also use these types to read and modify the contents of a compressed file. decompress(rawblock, size). gz > /dev/null does the job in 4 minutes 50 seconds python code have been doing the same job for. documentation. parser module provides us with the HTMLParser class, which can be sub-classed to parse HTML-formatted text files. copy ¶ Returns a copy of the decompression object. Simple to use and easy to integrate. [code] import gzip from StringIO import StringIO gzip. CompressedInputStream and CompressedOutputStream, for on-the-fly compression or decompression to/from another stream. indexed_gzip was written to allow fast random access of compressed NIFTI image files (for which GZIP is the de-facto compression standard), but will work with any GZIP file. We also tested pigz, which, as expected, had approximately the same compression times as MiGz and decompression times as GZip. Then you just need to read from the input stream and write to the output stream. import zlib def stream_gzip_decompress(stream): dec = zlib. Then build a dictionary by inserting each word/key pair into it. Session Objects¶. Peter Mikhalenko shows you just how easy it is to compress data streams with GZIP and Zip data formats. HELP! Python 2. python,gzip,checksum. GZIP file format specification version 4. Python gzip module provides a very simple way to compress and decompress files and work in a similar manner to GNU programs gzip and gunzip. The module-level function open() creates an instance of the file-like class GzipFile. The information is appended such that if a hang or crash occurs, it is possible to see the context in which the problem occurred, as well as a history of all Chilkat calls up to the point of the problem. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 fetchmail Buffer overflow in the POP3 client in Fetchmail before 6. I think your decompress crash is explained by the bug expanding past UINT_MAX I identified above. Read the second file and parse the tokens into variables that will contain the word and its numeric key. For gzip some variations exist that work around this (dictzip, rsyncable gzip). AES Free is the program that creates self-extracting encrypted AES-files for Windows. Decompress gzipped streams on the fly. gunzip / gzip is software application used for file compression. lz-string: JavaScript compression, fast! - pieroxy. the GZipStream will write to a stream and also read from a stream. The GzipFile class reads and writes gzip-format files, automatically compressing or decompressing the data so that it looks like an ordinary file. Returns the compressed data left in internal buffers. The simplest way to work with zlib requires holding all of the data to be compressed or decompressed in memory. >>> Python Software Foundation. This version of the library supports only one compression method (deflation) but other algorithms will be added later and will have the same stream interface. Description xz is a general-purpose data compression tool with command line syntax similar to gzip(1) and. The interesting thing is that it doesn't have to. Download the file for your platform. This version of the library supports only one compression method (deflation) but other algorithms will be added later and will have the same stream interface. GzipFile(fileobj=StringIO(s)). compressobj(). The data is GZip compressed, but I can't find a way to decompress it. GZipStream in the. Here, outputFile is the output file and the file is read into the FileStream. How to decompress a file in Python - Quora. Abbrevia is a compression toolkit for Delphi, C++Builder, Kylix, and Free Pascal. I'm a novice at programming and am having difficulty getting the code to work. "payload=json. It can be used under a commercial license if such has been acquired or under GPL 1, 2 or 3 where anything released into public must be open source. request and urllib. This can be used to save the state of the decompressor midway through the data stream in order to speed up random seeks into the stream at a future point. A portable compression library that supports stream based compression (gzip, deflate) as well as ZIP archives. There's a warning about this in Python 2's documentation, which is a better offering than most [1]. This module allows to decompress binary data compressed with DEFLATE algorithm (commonly used in zlib library and gzip archiver). Netcat to the rescue! Netcat is a very powerful tool it can open a raw network port and pass data through that port and it can listen for a raw data stream on the other end. We use cookies for various purposes including analytics. This can be used to save the state of the decompressor midway through the data stream in order to speed up random seeks into the stream at a future point. In this article we will show you how to unzip it. You can also save this page to your account. Why Plotly. This simple online text compression tool is compressing a plain text and decompressing compressed base64 string with gzip, bzip2 and deflate algorithms. I was wondering if anyone here knew of any python libraries with interfaces similar to the bzip2 module which is also multithreaded in (de)compression? Something along the lines of (say) the pbip2 program but with bindings for python? Obviously the multi-threaded part will need to be handled by the underlying library code and not the python. GzipFile is initialized with a fileobj which does not have tell() and seek() methods (non-rewinding stream) it throws exception. (CkPython) GZip Create / Extract. Decompress gzip File # python 3 # decompress a gzip file import gzip input = gzip. It contains a single file. c in KDM in KDE Software Compilation (SC) 2. """Functions that read and write gzipped files. I have tried GZipStream (C#) / GZIPOutputStream (Java), Zip, 7zip, etc, yet nothing seems to be compatible between both languages. A portable compression library that supports stream based compression (gzip, deflate) as well as ZIP archives. compressobj(). in basic Python learning material, we find a paragraph whose purpose is to explain that this is not Python's fault, but it is a fundamental limitation on the way gzip works. decompress(rawblock, size). Python 2 to 3 porting notes for bz2. DONOTEDITTHISFILE!!!!! !!!!!$$$$$ !!!!!///// !!!"!&!&!+!+!S!T![!^!`!k!p!y! !!!"""'" !!!&& !!!'/'notfoundin"%s" !!!) !!!5" !!!9" !!!EOFinsymboltable !!!NOTICE. need help on decompressing chunk data from a stream api. Create your free Platform account to download our ready-to-use ActivePython or customize Python with any packages you require. the GZipStream will write to a stream and also read from a stream. This software is released under an MIT/X11 open source license. It does not have an interface for decompressing a stream of data. bufsize is the initial size of the buffer used to hold. This module allows to decompress binary data compressed with DEFLATE algorithm (commonly used in zlib library and gzip archiver). com, but it doesn't work (returns -1). I am trying to decompress a. python and other forums, Python 2. gzip est basé sur l'algorithme deflate, qui est une combinaison des algorithmes LZ77 et Huffman. auth_basic module¶. In most cases, this works fine. Transparent decompression of stream (Python) - Codedump. The Python Software Foundation is a non-profit corporation. Currently. Response is gzipped and used chunked encoding. Normally, TRTH extraction provides data in gzip compress format. They are extracted from open source Python projects. 即,gzip是针对文件来压缩与解压缩的。. When wbits is negative, the standard gzip header is suppressed. This allows to process compressed streams with data larger than available heap size. The zlib module provides a lower-level interface to many of the functions in the zlib compression library from GNU. 6 Documentation zlib — Compression compatible with gzip Python 2. decompressobj(16+zlib. MAX_WBITS) # offset 32 to skip the header for chunk in stream: rv = dec. The data compression is provided by the zlib module. DONOTEDITTHISFILE!!!!! !!!!!$$$$$ !!!!!///// !!!"!&!&!+!+!S!T![!^!`!k!p!y! !!!"""'" !!!&& !!!'/'notfoundin"%s" !!!) !!!5" !!!9" !!!EOFinsymboltable !!!NOTICE. A portable compression library that supports stream based compression (gzip, deflate) as well as ZIP archives. The EncodingMode property should be set prior to calling this method. Contribute to python/cpython development by creating an account on GitHub. the gzip "ecosystem" is rich and useful, despite not being the best compressor in terms of compressed size. to_pickle Pickle (serialize) DataFrame object to file. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 CentOS Linux 3 The (1) Mozilla 1. SparkSession(sparkContext, jsparkSession=None)¶. However, AWS does not set this header, so the Requests call does not decompress. Here, outputFile is the output file and the file is read into the FileStream. datastreamprocessor. documentation. Gzip attempts to truncate only the parts of the file name longer than 3 characters. Since Python is cross compatible with Linux, Windows and Mac,. RawIOBase), but wraps another stream and compress it on-the-fly. Conclusion. 8, and (4) Netscape 7. decompress(rawblock, size). 先去找了下gzip的解释,发现python官方文档中,是这样说的: 12. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Python Forums on Bytes. copy ¶ Returns a copy of the decompression object. decompress(data) 4 bits of the first byte in a zlib stream represent the compression Both "deflate" and "gzip" coding use the same algorithm and. Using the urllib2 Module. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. The Python programming language. 15), meaning that input stream has gzip header. loads(stream_gzip_decompress(f. If set to a file path, causes each Chilkat method or property call to automatically append it's LastErrorText to the specified log file. Gelf Log Listener in Python. """Functions that read and write gzipped files. py distributed with the zlib module import struct, sys, time, os import zlib import io import __builtin__ __all__ = ["GzipFile","open"] FTEXT, FHCRC, FEXTRA, FNAME, FCOMMENT = 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 READ, WRITE = 1. They are extracted from open source Python projects. Today we will see how to use gzip and gunzip commands with examples. gz file and write the resulting text into the pipeline. For performance reason and usability, the new joblib version uses its own file object BinaryZlibFile for zlib compression. Download files. It does not have an interface for decompressing a stream of data. gzip and zlib use slightly different headers. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. Gzip Compress/Decompress. The patch only changes http. Enter your text: Tell Your Friends If you like and use these tools, please tell your friends using the social links at the top of the page. What pickle does is that it “serialises” the object first before writing it to file. BytesIO() for data in report_gzip. Now, if you compress this 1 GB file using gzip (which is not splittable) then HDFS still stores the file as 8 separate blocks. zlib is a software library used for data compression. Stream API responses directly to disk with Python February 28, 2018 Arne Sund Data Science , Gzip , JSON , Python , Requests , streaming , tools Python is the de-facto language for Data Science work. Compress is a Unix based compress program. In this lesson, we will study what classes are present in this module which allows us to perform the mentioned operations along with the. A small trick using the zlib library (again in standard python distribution), however, allows one to achieve this. 1 web browsers do not properly prevent a frame in one domain from injecting content into a frame that belongs to another domain, which facilitates web site spoofing and other attacks, aka the frame injection vulnerability. the entire HTTP message including headers and body. Decompress GZIP. Using the urllib2 Module. This allows to process compressed streams with data larger than available heap size. Decompressing a gzipped payload of a packet with Python. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets. The program is a part of batch file processing suite called Data Stream Processor. 15), meaning that input stream has gzip header. On macOS, which is a full POSIX compliant UNIX (formally certified!), OpenSSL has no zlib support, there is no zlib-flate either and while the first solution works as well as all the Python solutions, the first solution requires the ZIP data to be in a file and all the other solutions force you to create a Python script. How to decompress a file in Python - Quora. In order to decode a gzipped HTTP response, you only need to decode the response body, not the headers. Table of Contents Previous: Data Compression and Archiving Next: gzip - Read and write GNU zip files. Download files. private static void Decompress(Stream source, multiple files in a folder into a single Gzip file(. I am going crazy with a gzip file. 1% compressedfile. If you peruse its source (particularly the readline() method of the GzipFile class) you might get an idea of what's going on. The compress() and decompress() functions both take a byte. Python Forums on Bytes. http-chunked-gzip. zlib Usage Example We often get questions about how the deflate() and inflate() functions should be used. localStorage being usually limited to 5MB, all you can compress is that much more data you can store. Python Module for Windows, Linux, Alpine Linux,. You can compress and decompress any data stream in Java. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3 CentOS Linux 3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 CentOS Linux 4 Oracle Linux 4 Race condition in cpio 2. The following are code examples for showing how to use bz2. We also tested pigz, which, as expected, had approximately the same compression times as MiGz and decompression times as GZip. The interesting thing is that it doesn't have to. DecompIO (stream, wbits=0) ¶ Create a stream wrapper which allows transparent decompression of compressed data in another stream. In this article we will show you how to unzip it. I had my encoding it consumes a WHOLE lot more and new tv. In this case you may be able to gingerly reverse the process by So that difference in int strategy)); Dynamically update the compression level or strategy. The simplest way to work with zlib requires holding all of the data to be compressed or decompressed in memory. Extract plain text from PDF file. When I boot the PC with Windows writer wizard, my laptop go out. gz file extension are created using Gzip program which reduces the size of the named files using Lempel-Ziv coding (LZ77). Standard library documentation for gzip; zlib – The zlib module is a lower-level interface to gzip compression. gz file format is a compressed file format. But is there a way to decompress a st. On Windows it also provides Delphi wrappers for the LZMA, Bzip2, and WavPack SDKs, and PPMd decompression. Compression. OpenRead("test. (For incompressible data, most. Those are the reasons of gzip is still being used, and why gzip has future. It can be combined with any cmdlets that work with string in order to gather, sort, modify, or write the resulting output. A small trick using the zlib library (again in standard python distribution), however, allows one to achieve this. In this lesson, we looked at how we can make use of Python gzip module to compress and decompress files in Python. You can vote up the examples you like or vote down the ones you don't like. zlib will automatically use stored blocks if they are smaller than the same data compressed. gzip is short for GNU zip; the program is a free software replacement for the compress program used in early Unix systems. After importing the "gzip" module you can read, write, open, close, compress and decompress the file. However, you can look in zlib's contrib/blast directory for a possible solution to your problem. 6, (2) Firebird 0. Is it possible to decompress the data using winhttp? thanks Harsha. Wrap that FileInputStream with in a GZIPInputStream. NET Administrator June 7, 2014 5 Comments To compress and decompress using GZip in C# and VB. diff for Python 3. Other methods thrash the machine to death. In this case, both compression and decompression times are important. zipfile – The zipfile module gives access to ZIP archives. HP-UX 11 Apache The Apache HTTP server before 1. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: